CHASE: ASF new project in collaboration with ASTI, BVSN and UK AID

April 16th, 2014 by Valerie Khan No comments »

ASF new campaign : what to do in case of acid attack...

From Myra Imran, The News

April 15th, 2014 by Valerie Khan No comments »
Tuesday, April 15, 2014
From Print Edition
7  0  1  0
Islamabad

From 2007 to 2013, around 949 cases of acid attacks have been reported in the country. Among the total number, 519 were women whereas majority of cases (589) were reported from Punjab region.

The statistics were shared by the Chairperson Acid Survivors Foundation (ASF) Valerie Khan at the launch a report titled ‘Fostering Effective Implementation of Pro Human Rights Laws: Criminal Law Amendment Act 2011 (Act XXV), An Example of Good Practice.’ Valerie said that from January till March 2014, 40 cases of acid attacks have been reported in the country.

The report presents the efforts Pakistani government and civil society in improving the implementation of the above mentioned law. The event was organised by ASF in collaboration with National Commission on the Status of Women and Australian Aid.

The report highlighted that acid attacks reporting had increased (110 attacks in 2012 and 143 in 2013) which shows an encouraging trend to further break the silence and denounce violence against women and girls.

Additionally, the report insisted on the fact that police had made tremendous efforts to register due and correct FIRs under the new laws passed on December 12, 2011 when it faced acid attack cases. While only 1 per cent of the FIRs were registered under the correct law in 2012, 71 per cent of the FIRs registered in 2013 were under the new and correct law. The report mentions that many survivors still do not have sufficient or adequate access to medical and rehabilitation services, 65 per cent of the victims still could not access justice in 2013 and national consolidated data is still required.

Marvi Memon, the Chief Guest, declared that since 2010, Pakistan had come long way and she insisted that those improvements needed to be celebrated, but she also indicated that there was still a long way to go. She stressed that the “Comprehensive Acid and Burn Crime Bill” must be passed.

“Now there is sufficient momentum to support this bill, and we owe it to other survivors, we will continue the fight,” she said.

The event was attended by various stakeholders from different areas in Pakistan and it included law enforcement agencies representatives, lawyers, doctors, survivors, members of civil society media, acid survivors themselves.

The panel discussion after the report launch was chaired by Chairperson of the National Commission on the Status of Women Khawar Mumtaz. Kishwar Zehra, MNA from MQM, was also amongst the panelists in addition to Australian High Commissioner to Pakistan Peter Hayward and Chairperson ASF Valerie Khan Yusufzai.

All participants underlined the need to create awareness in order to challenge discriminatory and patriarchal mindsets, as well as transfer knowledge to achieve positive results in fostering law implementation. They were informed that judges now tend to punish far more severely in case of acid attack. before 2011, the average conviction was 6 to 10 years, now it is generally at least 20 years. It was shared that in general, convictions were more severe since 2012, and judiciary was trying to ensure trials in a shorter timeframe to provide relief to survivors since 2013.

Chairperson NCSW Khawar Mumtaz termed it encouraging that more reporting occurred but she also insisted the need to work on data and build up synergies to face the remaining challenges.

Valerie Khan called upon the government to lead the way and pass the Comprehensive Acid and Burn Crime Bill that Marvi Memon has tabled in the Parliamentary Committee of Law and Justice last week. “We are ready to provide technical help to review the comprehensive bill, but it is urgent that the federal and provincial governments ensure stronger protection to Pakistani citizens. Pakistani has inspired many other countries to address acid violence such as Columbia and India but positive steps such as establishing burn centers and social rehabilitation centers, or medical boards must be part of a legislative framework to be sustained and institutionalized.”

Australian High Commissioner Peter Hayward congratulated all stakeholders for those improvements and reiterated Australia’s commitment to support ASF action.

Awards were later on distributed to police, lawyers and doctors from all over the country, what ASF called, the true heroes.

ASF press release

April 15th, 2014 by Valerie Khan No comments »

Press release

On 14th April 2014, Acid Survivors Foundation Pakistan organised an event in collaboration with National Commission on the Status of Women and Australian Aid to launch a report titled : Fostering effective implementation of pro human rights laws: Criminal Law Amendment Act 2011 (Act XXV), an example of good practice. ASF-P presented how Pakistan had worked to improve the implementation of the above mentioned law.

Ms Marvi Memon, PML-N MNA, a champion for the fight against acid violence in Pakistan, was welcome as a Chief Guest, Mrs Khawar Mumtaz, Chairperson of the National Commission on the Status of Women chaired the panel of discussion. Mrs Kishwar Zehra, MQM –MNA was also amongst the panelists in addition with his excellency, Mr Peter Hayward, Australian High Commissioner to Pakistan, Ms neelam Toru, Chairperson of the Provincial Commission on the Status of Women and Mrs Valerie Khan Yusufzai, Chairperson Acid Survivors Foundation Pakistan.

The event was attended by various stakeholders from different areas in Pakistan (Balochistan, ICT, Punjab, KP, Sindh) and it included Law Enforcement Agencies representatives, lawyers, doctors, survivors, members of civil society media, acid survivors themselves.

The report highlighted that acid attacks reporting had increased (110 attacks in 2012 and 143 in 2013) which shows an encouraging trend to further break the silence and denounce violence against women and girls.

Additionally, the report insisted on the fact that police had made tremendous efforts to register due and correct FIRs under the new laws passed on 12th December 2011 when it faced acid attack cases. While only 1% of the FIRs were registered under the correct law, WITHOUT ASF intervention in 2012, 71% of the FIRs registered in 2013 were under the new and correct law, without ASF intervention.

All participants underlined that awareness campaigns to challenge discriminatory and patriarchal mindsets, as well as transfer knowledge, were crucial to achieve positive results in fostering law implementation. Judges now tend to punish far more severely in case of acid attack: before 2011, the average conviction was 6 to 10 years, now it is generally at least 20 years.

ASF also informed participants that in general, convictions were more severe since 2012, and judiciary was trying to ensure trials in a shorter timeframe to provide relief to survivors since 2013.

Mrs Khawar Mumtaz Chairperson NCSW acknowledged that those improvements were positive, that more reporting occurred thanks to a stronger mobilization of Pakistani citizens to denounce this worst form of gender based violence, but she also insisted on the remaining challenges, the need to work on data and build up synergies like the ones proposed by ASF.

Many survivors still do not have sufficient or adequate access to medical and rehabilitation services, 65% of the victims still could not access justice in 2013 and national consolidated data is still required. Marvi Memon, the Chief Guest declared that since 2010, Pakistan had come long way and she insisted that those improvements needed to be celebrated, but she also indicated that there was still a long way to go: the “comprehensive acid and burn crime bill” must be passed, now there is sufficient momentum to support this bill, and we owe it to other survivors, we will continue the fight and we will make hings move.

To this effect, Valerie Khan Yusufzai, called upon the government of Pakistan to lead the way and pass the Comprehensive Acid and Burn Crime Bill that Marvi Memon has tabled in the Parliamentary Committee of Law and Justice last week. “We are ready to provide technical help to review the comprehensive bill”, but it is urgent that the federal and provincial governments ensure stronger protection to Pakistani citizens. Much has been done, Pakistani has inspired many other countries to address acid violence such as Columbia and India but positive steps such as establishing burn centers and social rehabilitation centers, or medical boards must be part of a legislative framework to be sustained and institutionalized.

Mr Peter Hayward, Australian High Commissioner, congratulated ASF and all stakeholders for those improvements and reiterated Australia’s commitment to support ASF action.

Mrs Neelam Toru announced that the comprehensive bill was now ready with KP social welfare department so that it could be tabled, she said she knew cases were under-reported in KP as she had just been told of a case in Mardan on her way towards the event.

Ms Kiswar Zehra ensured ASF of MQM full support for the passage of he comprehensive acid and burn crime bill in assemblies.

Awards were later on distributed to police, lawyers and doctors from all over the country, what ASF called, the true heroes.

ASF Event In Collaboration With Australian Aid And NCSW, Join Us!

April 15th, 2014 by Valerie Khan No comments »

Samira Shackle from Newstatesman

April 15th, 2014 by Valerie Khan No comments »

Acid attacks: a horrific crime on the increase worldwide

Around 1,500 cases are recorded every year but the real figure is probably far higher.

BY SAMIRA SHACKLE PUBLISHED 1 APRIL, 2014 – 12:10

Victims of spite: acid attack survivors at an anti-violence rally in Dhaka. (Photo: Rex Features)
Victims of spite: acid attack survivors at an anti-violence rally in Dhaka. (Photo: Rex Features)

Naomi Oni had left work and was on her way home to Dagenham, east London, when acid was thrown in her face. The attack took place in 2012 when she was just 20 years old. Oni is still undergoing painful skin grafts to rebuild her face.

In an emotional interview on Radio 4’s Today programme on 24 March, Oni, now 22, spoke of her isolation. “I didn’t choose this,” she said. “I’m only human.” She labelled the Metropolitan Police as incompetent: they initially suggested she had thrown acid on herself. They later charged Mary Konye, a former friend of Oni’s, with the attack; she was found guilty in January and jailed for 12 years.

Acid violence has been in the headlines after several high-profile cases. Last August, Kirstie Trup and Katie Gee, two British 18-year-olds, suffered a random attack in Zanzibar. The previous January, the Bolshoi Ballet’s artistic director Sergei Filin was assaulted by one of its principal dancers.

Worldwide, about 1,500 cases of acid violence are recorded every year, according to Acid Survivors Trust, but the real figure is probably far higher. And the sheer brutality of acid attacks – which take seconds to carry out but can cause permanent disability, as well as excruciating pain and disfigurement – makes them unusual and noteworthy.

It has been suggested that attacks are increasing in the UK but a lack of reliable statistics makes this difficult to verify. NHS statistics recorded 105 hospital admissions for “assault by corrosive substance” in 2011-2012, but this category covers not only acid. That contrasts with 44 admissions in 2006-2007. There is no ethnic or geographic evidence to back this up, but some reports suggest that honour crimes in south Asian, south-east Asian and East African communities are responsible for the increase.

Certainly attacks are prevalent in south Asia, but they also happen in Cambodia, Vietnam, Colombia, Peru and elsewhere, including the UK and the US. It is a kind of violence that transcends cultural and religious borders, but is most common in places where acid is readily available. In south Asia, where regulation is poor and acid is used in the cotton industry, a bottle of the stuff can be bought for 20p.

The crime has a long history in Britain. In the 1740s, when sulphuric acid was widely available, acid-throwing happened often. In the 1830s, one Glasgow periodical wrote that acid violence had “become so common . . . as to become almost a stain on the national character”.

Acid attacks are often a form of gender-based violence and, as such, they occur most commonly in countries where women are disenfranchised. Last year I visited the Acid Survivors Foundation (ASF) in Islamabad, the only centre in Pakistan dedicated to the rehabilitation and treatment of victims. The most striking thing about the stories of the women I met was the triviality of the causes: men taking revenge for rejected marriage proposals or husbands who got bored by their wives. It brought to mind the case of the former model Katie Piper, the UK’s most high-profile acid survivor, whose attack was orchestrated by an ex-boyfriend in 2008.

There are no hard and fast rules of this crime: men can be the victims of acid attack and women can be the perpetrators. Yet the attacks are always about exerting control and erasing identity. Mohammad Jawad, a plastic surgeon who operated on Piper and who appeared in Saving Face, the Oscar-winning documentary about acid attacks in Pakistan, described it thus: “The attacker is saying: ‘I don’t want to kill her – I am going to do something to distort her.’ It’s a walking dead situation for the victim.”

When the Today presenter Mishal Husain asked Oni why Konye had attacked her, she started to sob. “She is an evil person . . . No one in this world should throw acid on someone because they had an argument.”

It is a natural impulse to search for the reasons for such abuse, but can there ever be a justification? To most people it would be unimaginable to lose one’s face. As Oni said during her interview, explaining oneself and being disbelieved is a second abuse.

The situation for survivors of acid violence varies globally, but to differing extents all survivors feel socially ostracised. Few cultures are kind to disfigurement.

“Acid attack doesn’t mean the end of your life,” Valerie Khan, the director of ASF Islamabad, told me: “provided you receive those rehabilitation services to psychologically and physically repair you, mentally rebuild your self-confidence, and empower you economically – despite the new you, which is not necessarily an easy one to be accepted with.”

Acid violence is an extreme expression of control. Society can help to wrest some of that back for survivors by believing them, supporting them, providing medical treatment, and, crucially, redressing the balance with justice.

ASF Pakistan And NCSW Join Hands To Counter Acid Violence In Pakistan

April 15th, 2014 by Valerie Khan No comments »

Article from Daily News:

NCSW, ASF sign MoU for data collection, monitoring

ISLAMABAD: The National Commission on the Status of Women (NCSW) has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Acid Survivors Foundation (ASF) for the establishment of a mechanism for data collection and monitoring data update on a six-month basis
The purpose of this MoU is to organise training/networking workshops for capacity building and sensitisation of parliamentarians/members of assemblies, especially women, in relation with acid and burn violence. Both NCSW and ASF would identify, document and share good practices that will be capitalised upon in the future to address gender-based violence, especially violence against women. NCSW Chairperson Khawar Mumtaz termed the MoU a milestone for NCSW and said it was an important step towards testing and developing a workable monitoring mechanism that will provide the basis for appropriate actions. Mumtaz hoped that the MoU will provide a good model for collectively promoting women’s rights and working towards achieving gender equity as envisaged in Article 25 of the constitution. According to the Acid Survivors Foundation the country has a high survival rate amongst the victims of acid attacks. The victims, who mostly hail from low-income groups, face the uphill task of rebuilding their lives with physical challenges and psychological changes, which require long-term surgical treatment and in-depth intervention from psychologists and counselors. The ASF Chairperson Valerie Khan defined the MoU as “an interesting step towards institutionalising the promotion and protection of women’s rights in Pakistan”. She said that “such collaborations between the civil society and government institutions are crucial for enhancing good governance in the current scenario present in the country”.

valerie Khan Yusufzai, Chairperson ASF, along with her excellency Mrs Khawar Mumtaz, Chairperson National Commission on The Status of Women

Expression Of Interest

March 15th, 2014 by Valerie Khan No comments »

CALL FOR EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FOR ANALYSIS REPORT

INTRODUCTION

Acid Survivors Foundation (ASF) Pakistan is a nonprofit organization registered in 2006 under Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies (Registration and Control) Ordinance 1961 as a nonprofit organisation. ASF-Pak provides medical, psychosocial and legal support to the victims of acid attacks to ensure physical reconstruction and reintegration into the mainstream of the society. ASF-Pak also has initiatives to engage the media and overall society in the implementation of prevention activities.

BACKGROUND

ASF Pakistan is implementing a 12 month project on Enhancing Women’s Rights Through Effective Implementation Of Pro Women Legislation.

ASSIGNMENT:

Production of a project analysis report related to the implementation of Criminal Law Amendment Act 2011 (Act XXV).

Based upon focused group discussions (beginning/end of project) and a comparative data analysis, the report will document the process developed to engage and monitor various stakeholders in/for improving law implementation, present the lessons learnt and assess the outcomes

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES:

Specifically, the consultant will be required to:

• Focus group discussions with project staff
• Analysis of comparative data
• Docuemnting the lessons learn
• Assessing the outcomes

DELIVERABLES

The Deliverables shall be submitted in electronic / hard copy format to the ASF office and shall include the following:

• Inception report
• Draft report
• Final report

Qualifications and experience
• Individual consultants/organisations/companies with a proven track record with relevant are invited to apply. Applicants should demonstrate the following skills and experience:
Essential:
• 5-10 years of experience in human rights, Pakistani legal framework, criminal law and/or governance field with a strong focus on women righst and gender equity.
• Proven track record of report writing / drafting
• Good analytical skills
• The ability to work well under pressure and skilled in trouble shooting, crisis management, and problem solving

Proposal submission:

ASF is inviting proposals from interested parties. Proposals should include individual and / or organisational profile, a work-plan along with proposed methodology and budget reflecting the required services as given in ToRs.
The deadline for receipt of proposals is: 18 th March 2014

All proposals should be sent to:

Via post
PO BOX 419, Islamabad. Pakistan

Via email
E-mail: hr_asf@ymail.com

Acid Survivors Join The Event As Artists!

March 9th, 2014 by Valerie Khan No comments »

International Women’s Day: Women tell tales of bravery and hard work

Published: March 8, 2014

survivors of gender-based violence narrating personal experiences in the play. PHOTO: INP

ISLAMABAD: Women from across the country shared their struggles and experiences at a gathering organised by civil society organisations in connection with the International Women’s Day while participants at an event debated the draft guidelines for media on Friday here.

The guidlines have been framed by Pakistan Press Council after consultation with the National Commission on the Status of Women, Uks and Rozan for media while covering gender issues.

Salient features of the guidelines include discouraging negative and stereotypical portrayal of women, ensuring at least 33 per cent representation of women in media houses at all levels, building capacity of media practitioners to improve gender sensitive reporting, avoiding sensationalism in covering gender issues and commodification of women in news and entertainment and respecting privacy of individuals in cases involving rape etc.

 photo 3_zpsbdd057aa.jpg

Starting small

In a separate event, women victims of conflict from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (K-P) shared their stories.

Women, who lost their male family members gathered at the Lok Visa to share their traumatic experiences at an event titled “Conflict Victims Support Project”, organised by the USAID.

Aliya Tufail is a mother of three from Charsadda. Her husband was killed in a suicide attack in 2009.

Mother of four, Raffat Bibi from Khyber Agency never thought that one day she will have to raise her children on charity money. But a suicide blast changed her life when her husband lost one leg in a suicide blast.

The project has given her two cows to start a milk selling business.

Rubina Tabbasum, 42, who had suffered serious injuries during the Peshawar Church blast, said, “I had been teaching at a private school for 22 years, but after the injuries, I lost my job.”

“I don’t want to become burden on my family, therefore with help from the project, I started my own small garments business.”

USAID Mission Director Gregory Gottlieb addressing the participants said, “women play an integral part in the development of a society and I am sure that you will leave a legacy of hard work and bravery that your children will be proud of. The people of the USA stand by the people of K-P and FATA through your difficulties and will continue to promote stability and prosperity throughout the region.”

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Enacting their tales

In yet another event, nine female actors, all survivors of gender-based violence, narrated some poignant personal experiences in the play “Inspiring Change” at a local hotel.

Debunking the myth that domestic violence is a private matter, the play targeted the stereotypical mindset that women should conform to conservative norms that limit them from realising their true potential.

Wardah*, 23, reenacted her escape from home when her parents forcibly married her to a man who did not approve of her aspirations to work and support her mother. She had to put her dreams of a career on the backburner and find refuge in a cross-city shelter home.

All Neha*,20, had asked of her husband was to work, quit drugs and not beat her up. Frustrated by her incessant pleading, he threw acid on her, damaging her face, hands and feet. It was then that she too stock of herself and her toddler daughter. “I had all but given up on life,” said the acid survivor, whose orange hijab concealed only some of the scars. She now runs her own boutique line and tends to daughter who is her “greatest gift.”

“It’s brave of these women to speak out about their lives and everything they had to go through. They have lived through adversity and refuse to dub down to circumstance, which is a feat in itself,” said Arsalan, a university student and audience member.

Solving Kohistan-video mystery

In  a seminar on ‘Pakistan Women Fighting Extremism and Violence: A Case of Kohistan Women’ participants urged the Chief Justice of Pakistan to re-open the Kohistan video scandal case and order the K-P administration to produce those five women in front of Supreme Court which they are claiming to be alive.

It was organized by Pattan Development Foundation in collaboration with Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.

They also urged the need to review local jirga system with regard to its impacts on women and stressed the state functionaries to get implemented the pro-women laws in letter and spirit.

Rights activist Dr Farzana Bari said “these culprits are a real threat to other innocent women and men in the area. If not punished they would continue taking more lives,” she said.

Dr Bari also raised some questions about legislative lacunae. “Why our civil justice system is so ineffective? Why jirga and punchayat systems are so powerful”, she asked

Senator Mushahid Hussain said the issue of extremism and violence against women go together.

“Mostly jirga issues are anti women,” he said.

Amtul Raqeeb Award for woman

The Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF) conferred its third Amtul Raqeeb Award on seven women to acknowledge their contribution towards community-driven development.

The award recipients include Asma Attaullah from Balochistan, Nusrat Yusuf from Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Kulsoom Akhtar from Multan, Rubina Lashari from Thatta, Zewar Bano from Gilgit-Baltistan, Samina from Swat and Abida Mustafa from Balochistan, according to a PPAF press release.

The women were engaged in PPAF-support community development initiatives around the country.

Justice Retd Yasmin Abbasey, the federal ombudsman for protection against harassment of women at workplace, conferred the awards during a ceremony at the PPAF offices on Friday. Abbasey said “by focusing on women education, we can lay down strong foundations of an enlightened and prosperous society,” she said.

Published in The Express Tribune, March 8th, 2014.

Celebrating 8th March 2014 At French Embassy In Pakistan

March 8th, 2014 by Valerie Khan No comments »

His Excellency Mr Philippe Thiebaut, Ambassador of France to Pakistan, along with Mrs Khawar Mumtaz Chairperson od National Commission on the Status of Women and Mrs Atiya Inayatullah, ex MNA, ex Federal Minister, and human/women righst activists.

Empowering women: Need stressed for implementing gender-sensitive laws

08-Mar-14 03:53 AM

ISLAMABAD:
Pakistani women will not give in to the patriarchal tyranny of their society and continue to work for the passage and implementation of laws to protect women against violence, rights activists said on Friday.

The activists were speaking at a reception organised by the French embassy to celebrate International Women’s Day, which falls on March 8.
Speakers talked about the need to highlight the achievements of Pakistani women and push for effective implementation of laws to achieve gender equality in the country.

“The major impediment in the implementation of laws that protect women is the patriarchal mindset,” said former MNA Attiya Inayatullah. “I believe we need more voices (from men to support women’s equality and empowerment.)”
French Ambassador Philippe Thiebaud said women and girls around the world are facing new challenges which call for global cooperation and action to counter these challenges. “No country in the world can pretend to have achieved complete gender equality and so we must work together to achieve it.”
He said every day should be treated as importantly as the 8th of March. The French ambassador also said the embassy is committed to help with education and skill development for Pakistani women.
He said gender equality is being ensured in the 200 needs-based scholarships the French embassy offers Pakistani students annually for higher education.
Acid Survivors Foundation (ASF) Director Valerie Khan said women’s rights activists will work in 2014 to get pending women-specific legislations, such as domestic violence and anti-acid crime laws, passed through federal and provincial assemblies.

Rights activist Tahira Abdullah said the federal government has claimed Pakistan’s poverty rate is 12.5 per cent in a recent Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) report, which contradicts most independent assessments of poverty in the country.“Civil society organisations should exercise their right to submit a “shadow report” to a UN agency to express their concerns about the government’s report.”
Inayatullah said women’s rights activists around the world should lobby for all the MDGs to be “engendered” because some of the existing indicators are not gender-specific.
In keeping with the International Women’s Day 2014’s theme of “Inspiring change,” National Commission on the Status of Women (NCSW) Chairperson Khawar Mumtaz paid tribute to Pakistani women who inspire the current women rights movement in the country.
Mumtaz said Pakistani women and girls such as mountaineer Samina Baig, education activist Malala Yousufzai, independent candidate Veeru Kohli, signify defiance against the patriarchal order.
“NCSW’s current focus is to “make sure that laws (related to women rights) get implemented. The commission is building a mechanism to monitor and find gaps in implementation.” By the end of 2014, we would be able to track the implementation of women-specific laws, she added.
She also mentioned that rules of business for NCSW, which was made autonomous in 2012, will be approved in the coming few days which will make the commission more effective.
Published in The Express Tribune, March 8th, 2014.

A New French Publication On Stigma with Contribution From ASF Chairperson, Valerie Khan Yusufzai.

March 1st, 2014 by Valerie Khan No comments »

Accueil

Les porteurs de stigmates. Entre expériences intimes, contraintes institutionnelles et expressions collectives – Héas S., Dargère C. (dir.)

Héas S., Dargère C. (dir.), (2014). Les porteurs de stigmates. Entre expériences intimes, contraintes institutionnelles et expressions collectives, Paris, L’Harmattan, Collection Des Hauts&Débats (grand format), février, 298 pages.

Les processus de stigmatisation alimentent et entretiennent l’exclusion. Cet ouvrage fournit un espace de parole aux victimes : être brûlée à l’acide, souffrir d’un trouble psychique handicapant, vivre des orientations sexuelles minoritaires, etc. Il présente des analyses dans le cadre de l’école, du sport, de l’hôpital général ou psychiatrique. Enfin, il précise la condition de personnes vulnérables particulièrement exposées à la stigmatisation. La sociologie, l’ethnologie, l’histoire, les sciences de l’information et de la communication, mais aussi la pédagogie sont mobilisées pour mieux comprendre ces processus et ces personnes, leurs trajectoires, leurs réactions, leurs mobilisations. Le stigmate n’est pas une marque indélébile inscrite une fois pour toute. Ses conséquences sont parfois durables, mais les actions et réactions, les adaptations matérielles, symboliques, permettent de construire des expériences riches d’une variété humaine, d’une mixité sociale et culturelle, à vivre, à expérimenter dans le respect de tous et toutes.